Articles by Joel Geier

Trotskyism confronts World War II: The origins of the International Socialists

US socialist Joel Geier recounts how a debate on soviet imperialism and the Hitler-Stalin pact led to a crisis in Trotskyism and the birth of the International Socialist tradition.

Socialist alternatives: The Portuguese Revolution

Joel Geier revisits the inspiring revolution that took place in Portugal 50 years ago, toppling a fascist regime, but ultimately missing an opportunity to progress to workers’ power and socialism. His eye-witness account provides valuable insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the revolutionary movement.